ردیابی زودهنگام تهاجم قارچ‌‌های بیمارگر گیاهی در زیست‌‌بوم‌‌های طبیعی بر اساس اثر پایگاهی با تأکید بر گونه‌‌های Phytophthora

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه شیراز.

چکیده

درک چگونگی ورود و استقرار بیمارگرهای گیاهی، برای پیشگیری از تهاجم‌‌های جدید آن‌ها، ضروری است. بررسی‌های زیاد در دهه‌‌‌‌ اخیر نشانگر تهاجم‌‌های زیستی در نتیجه‌‌ اثر پایگاهی است. به عبارت دیگر، بیمارگرها از محیط یا گیاه میزبان جدید به شکل پایگاه اولیه استفاده می‌‌کنند تا بعد به‌توانند در زمان مناسب حمله کنند و همه‌گیری به ‌‌وجود آورند. اثر پایگاهی در بیمارگرهای گیاهی از جمله باکتری‌‌ها، قارچ‌‌ها و شبه‌‌قارچ‌‌های اُاُمیستی در درختان منطقه‌‌های شهری دیده شده است. پردیس‌‌های شهری به طور معمول اولین نقطه‌‌ تماس بیمارگرهای نوپدید با گیاهان بومیهستند. بیمارگرهای گیاهی بیشتر به دلیل فعالیت‌‌های متمرکز انسان و ورود گیاهان غیربومی در این منطقه‌‌ها منتشر می‌‌شوند. درختان شهری مکان مناسبی برای استقرار بیمارگرهای مهاجمی هستند که به طور تصادفی به منطقه وارد می‌‌شوند. به احتمال اثر پایگاهی نقش قابل توجهی در ایجاد خسارت‌‌های درازمدت دارد و هزینه‌‌های زیادی برای مدیریت بیمارگرهای گیاهی ایجاد می‌‌کند. در مقابل، برای تشخیص زودهنگام بیمارگرهای جدید یا مهاجم می‌‌توان از درختان شهری در نقش کشت‌‌های دیدبان بهره برد و با پیش‌‌بینی وقوع بیماری، خسارت ناشی از این بیمارگرها را مدیریت کرد. در ایران، نشانه‌‌هایی دیده شده است مبتنی بر وجود اثر پایگاهی درختان شهری و گیاهان زینتی برای شبه‌‌قارچ‌‌های اُاُمیستی. افزون بر این، گزارش‌‌هایی از وجود گونه‌‌های بیمارگر جدید در این منطقه‌‌ها در دست است. هدف از این نوشتار، بررسی ابعاد مختلف اثر پایگاهی در بیمارگرهای گیاهی قارچی و شبه‌‌قارچی و برنامه‌ریزی برای مدیریت تهدید احتمالی زیست‌‌بوم‌‌های طبیعی ایران ناشی از اثر پایگاهی آن‌‌هاست.

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