نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استاد دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The range, grass and/or grazing lands are the most important, extensive, useful and beautiful God given resource not only at the disposal and the uses of the human beings but also, at the disposal and the uses of the other living creatures all over the land sphere. Since it is as such, then inevitably, the range spaces are exposed to the most dangerous natural damages and afflictions, as well as to the human and non human events, occurrences and incidents. This phenomenon and characteristic as well as the conditions accompany it in respect to the existence of the rangelands, more or less in any territory from the beginning of life along with the time till now, had been running as such. As a result, especially in recent centuries, the human beings had been watching the gradual, but continuing death of enormous, beneficial, pure and abundant natural grasslands. As far as numerous witnesses approve the story that the gradual death of the grasslands in many parts of the world, had been followed by continuous disaster of droughts, still followed by the destruction of the subsistence sites on the earth globe and consequently, the fall of human civilization in other parts of the earth. Now, considering the necessity of the grasslands sustainable management, as one of the most outstanding bio-resources for all of the living creatures all over the land sphere. The goal of this article was to plan extension educational strategies for the sustainable process of maintaining, revival, development and exploitation of the country’s grasslands. For this purpose, while doing the library searches, the basic researches for this article, had taken place on the bases of clinical surveys through observations, meetings and interviews with individuals and groups involved in exploitation and maintenance of the grasslands in the territories of the counties and villages’ as well as in pasturelands resorts and also in the country’ institutions and organizations involved. The findings which were based on the experiments and studies relying on “natural – pivoted development”, indicate the reality that ahead of any move in the process of maintaining, revival, development and exploitation of the country’s grasslands, it is necessary to plan extension educational strategies to start with. In this relation, this article contains a review of the literature on the philosophy, principles, objectives (as the pillars or the essential elements) as well as the strategies regarding the School of Extension Education, which is briefly discussed in the appendix. In completing the role of these essential elements, after explaining the extension teaching methods, the addressed groups including local and technical leaders, traditional know-how men and professional shepherds (the rural as well as the tribe) and also the needed training workshops, and the other necessary methods to train general volunteer rural and tribal animal keepers, had been mentioned. These teaching and training methods had been defined and introduced in the meantime, at the end of the article. Also in addition to some recommendations, reference is made to some training motives and incentives in order to attract the training objective groups, as well as to evaluate the basis of the effectiveness of the extension training activities regarding the extension educational management in range sustainable exploitation.